Pomeranian Dogs
History, Characteristics, Personality and More

Among several toy dog breeds, Pomeranian dogs distinctly stand out for their buoyant, inquisitive demeanor and enticing looks.

Affectionately nicknamed as pompom, this breed's name derives from an area once known as the Pomerania region, now part of North-Eastern Germany and North-Western Poland.

This breed also goes by the name of Deutsche Spitze, Zwergspitz, Spitz nai, Spitz enano, Pom and Zwers.

Whether you are thinking about buying a puppy and want to know if this is the right breed for you or just want to learn more about this breed, you will find the answers to your questions right here!

Pomeranian History

Pomeranian dogs are believed to descend from some Spitz-type dogs of Iceland and Lapland. In the past, this breed was much larger in size, with some specimens weighing as much as 30 pounds. They closely resembled the German wolf Spitz which at that time was used mainly for herding sheep and pulling sleds.

This breed was pretty unpopular until 1888, when on a trip to France, Queen Victoria literally fell in love with a Pomeranian named Windsor's Marco. The queen is credited for encouraging a significant reduction in size in this breed of about 50 percent and adding different colors.

From herder and sled dog, this breed subsequently upgraded to a cozy lap warmer for the royalty. Among other enthusiasts of this breed were Mozart, Marie Antoinette and Emile Zola, a French writer.

Pomeranians are often mixed with other breeds. A Pomeranian Chihuahua Mix gives life to the Pomchi, a fluffy fur ball of energy. A Maltese Pomeranian mix, on the other hand, produces an exotic looking Maltipom.

This breed was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1888 and was categorized under the Toy Group.


Physical Characteristics

This is a compact dog boasting physical characteristics typical of dogs of Nordic descent. This breed's spirited personality manifests though its animated gait.

The body of the Pomeranian is compact and well-ribbed with a short back. The neck sits well within the shoulders. The top line is level. The chest presents a pronounced prosternum. The tail is set high, boasting a remarkable plumage arching over the back.

Legs are straight and the feet are round and cat-like. The elbows present tight to the body without turning inwards or outwards. The dewclaws from the forequarters and hindquarters may be removed.

The wedge-shaped head is carried high and proudly. The expression is intelligent, closely resembling a fox. Eyes are almond shaped and dark in color. The ears are small and erect. The muzzle is short. The nose is black. The teeth meet into a scissor bite.

Pomeranian dogs are equipped with a double coat. The undercoat is soft and thick, providing great insulation, whereas, the outer coat is long, straight and harsh to the touch. A ruff around the neck frames the head and extends over the shoulders. The forelegs are nicely feathered and the tail is plumed. The coat is typically thicker and longer in males.

All coat color patterns and variations are acceptable. Some breeders are selectively breeding to bring back the Chocolate Pomeranian coat, a color that was popular hundreds of years ago but has become less common due to the popularity of the oranges. This color is a recessive gene; therefore, it requires parents that are chocolate or chocolate carriers.

Interestingly, Pomeranian puppies tend to change colors during puppyhood. The color changes are so common in this breed that the American Kennel Club allows breeders to changes the colors on the registration form up to 7 times! A black Pomeranian, for instance, may develop a secondary color and no longer be considered solid black by the age of 8 weeks.

    Height Weight
  Male 8 to 11 inches 3 to 7 pounds
  Female 8 to 11 inches 3 to 7 pounds

Some breeders have also further significantly reduced the size of some Poms, giving life to the Teacup Pomeranian, the Miniature Pomeranian and the Toy Pomeranian. Consider the fact though that the above mixes are designer dogs and not pure-bred dogs and that and smaller versions of Poms may not adhere to the breed standard due to their size and weight.

Temperament of the Pomeranian Dog Breed

Pomeranian dogs are small dogs with big personalities. They are extremely curious, following you around and having to comment on just about anything. They often like high spots so they can take in as much action as they can. This breed craves attention and will do everything in their power to get every ounce of it.

Sitting Pomeranian Puppy

When it comes to training, this breed can be stubborn but they are often strongly motivated by food and lots of praise. They may enjoy the sport of agility, where they can sprint and get rid of pent-up energy.

Early socialization with new people, animals and children is important with this breed. Failure to socialize Pomeranians may lead to shy, standoffish behaviors, especially towards strangers. Don't carry your Pomeranian puppy in a dog carrier all day; let him stay on leash and experience the world!

This breed's amiable tendencies makes them accepting of other pets, however, some poms seem to forget about their size and may attempt to chase unknown dogs regardless of size. Bigger dogs, on the other hand, may see these fluffy creatures as an enticing snack!

Pomeranian puppies, as several other toy dogs, are not one of the easiest breeds to housebreak. The process may feel quite long and frustrating for new puppy owners.

Best Owner and Living Conditions

This breed will do best with somebody willing to exercise and socialize these sassy creatures. Owners who like to spoil dogs must be watchful with this strong-willed breed; it thrives on consistent rules from day one.

Pomeranian do not do well with families with small children. A cute Pom may not tolerate the antics of a small child and may turn into Cujo when his toys or other belongings are touched. Some Pomeranian dogs may also snap when bothered or when they feel a child has invaded their space.

This breed is flexible when it comes to its living quarters, making it an ideal pet for homes of all sizes. They can live happily in an apartment as long as they get their daily exercise.

Despite their warm looking coat, they do not make good outdoor dogs because they are very family oriented. But their barking tendencies can become a problem when living in tight-knit neighborhoods.

Activity and Exercise

Pomeranians are spirited and animated dogs despite their small size. They thrive on daily walks and romps in the yard. Excess energy can be channeled with structured activities and engagement in the canine sport of agility.

Pomeranian Dog

Pomeranian Grooming

The Pomeranian dog breed sheds in moderate to large amounts. Routine brushing helps remove loose hair, prevent mats from forming and distribute the oils evenly. To keep the coat neat, some owners choose to trim the hair around the feet, face, rear end and ears.

Clean the eyes and ears regularly. Because small dogs are prone to dental problems, routine brushing of the teeth may prevent the buildup of tartar and early tooth loss. Bathe or dry shampoo when necessary.

Health Concerns

This small breed is prone to tracheal collapse, hypothyroidism, hypoglycemia, luxating patella and black skin disease. Purchasing a puppy from reputable Pomeranian breeders who screen their breeding stock for genetic problems may reduce the chances for congenital disorders.

Visit dog health problems to learn more about dog diseases and health care.

Pomeranian dogs may be prone to obesity; something owners should always try to keep under control.

Even healthy dogs get sick. While many health problems will require an immediate attention from your Vet, there are many others that you may handle on your own. Learn how to save time and money (and how to prevent small problems from becoming big problems) by diagnosing and treating dog health problems that don't require your Vet's attention.

Pomeranian Puppies

Life Expectancy

The average life expectancy for healthy Pomeranian puppies is between 13 and 15 years.

Final Thoughts...

This sassy breed with a puff-ball appearance certainly knows how to draw the attention of those surrounding them. Poms come in small packages but those who own Pomeranian dogs know too well that they are equipped with big hearts, fluffy bodies and big personalities.

Did you ever consider adopting your next pet?

If this is the breed you are interested in, and adoption appeals to you, consider contacting your local Pomeranian rescue. There are thousands of pets waiting for a loving home and, yes, it's possible to adopt a purebred dog.

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Want to learn more?

Puppy Training

Not happy with your pet's behavior? Need help with training your dog for obedience? If you answered "YES", then check this Pomeranian Behavior and Obedience Training Guide.


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Pomeranian Dogs » Dog Breeds

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